Date: April 6, 1830
Cause of Death: Clubbing and Stabbing
Accused: Richard Crowninshield, John Francis Knapp, Joseph Jenkins Knapp, Jr.
Captain Joseph White, a wealthy, retired merchant, lived in a fine house in Salem, Massachusetts with a manservant and his niece, Mrs. Beckford, who served as housekeeper. Mrs. Beckford’s daughter was married to Captain White's grandnephew, Joseph J. Knapp, Jr., and lived in Wenham, MA, not far away. Knapp had learned that Captain White had just completed his will, leaving $15,000 to Mrs. Beckford. He believed that if his great uncle died without a will his mother-in-law would, instead, inherit half his fortune--$200,000. He set out to guarantee this would happen.
That night, while the two brothers waited outside, Richard Crowninshield entered the house through the window. He went to the bedroom where Captain White was sleeping, fractured his skull with a club and stabbed him thirteen times with a long dagger.
The town of Salem was shocked by the news that a prominent citizen had been murdered in his sleep. They organized a Committee of Vigilance to investigate the crime. Adding to the confusion, the Knapp brothers falsely reported to the Vigilance Committee that they had been robbed by three men on the road from Salem to Wenham. This led to the belief that a gang of assassins was working in the neighborhood.
The Committee had no clues in the case until a pickpocket in the New Bedford jail, seventy miles away, testified that his friend Richard Crowninshield had told him that he had killed Captain White. Crowninshield was arrested in Salem but would say nothing about the murder.
Around the same time, Joseph J. Knapp, Sr., father of the Knapp brothers, received a letter from a Charles Grant of Belfast, Maine, demanding a large sum of money to avoid "ruinous disclosures". Joseph, Sr. could make no sense of the letter; it had been intended for his son. He showed it to Joseph, Jr. who called it “a devilish lot of trash” and told his father to take it to the Vigilance Committee. Then, to muddy the waters, Joseph, Jr. wrote two letters, both purporting to be from Charles Grant. One to the Committee claiming that he (Grant) had been hired to murder Captain White by the Captain’s nephew, Steven White. The second was to Steven White from Grant, demanding payment for the murder.
The Committee dispatched a messenger to Belfast, Maine, and arranged to have Grant arrested at the post office when he came to pick up his mail. His real name was Palmer; he was an associate of Richard Crowninshield and was privy to the whole plot, including the instigating role of the Knapp brothers. To avoid prosecution himself, he told all. The news reached Salem and the false letters were found to be in Joseph Knapp, Jr.’s handwriting. Joseph and John Knapp were taken into custody.
On his third day of imprisonment Joseph Knapp, Jr. made a full confession to his role in planning the murder, fabricating the story of the robbery, and forging the letters. After learning of Knapp’s confession, Richard Crowninshield realized he had no hope and hanged himself in jail with a handkerchief tied to the bars of his cell.
The Knapps were to have been tried as accessories to murder, but under existing law, accessories could not be convicted unless the actual murderer was first convicted. Crowninshield’s suicide made this impossible. It appeared that the Knapp bothers would get away with murder.
Trials: July 1830 - John Francis Knapp,
November 1830 - Joseph Jenkins Knapp
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts employed the distinguished Daniel Webster to prosecute the case. Though better known as a defense attorney, Webster occasionally served as prosecutor. He described Captain White’s murder as,
“… a most extraordinary case. In some respects, it has hardly a precedent anywhere; certainly none in our New England history. This bloody drama exhibited no suddenly excited, ungovernable rage. The actors in it were not surprised by any lionlike temptation springing upon their virtue, and overcoming it, before resistance could begin. Nor did they do the deed to glut savage vengeance, or satiate longsettled and deadly hate. It was a cool, calculating, moneymaking murder. It was all "hire and salary, not revenge." It was the weighing of money against life; the counting out of so many pieces of silver against so many ounces of blood.”
The defense in the first trial argued that John Knapp could not be considered an accessory in the murder because the legal requirement said that an accessory must be present during the murder. The Knapps had been standing in the street, 300 feet away from the room where the murder was being committed.
Webster’s response was:
“To constitute a presence, it is sufficient if the accomplice is in a place, either where he may render aid to the perpetrator of the felony, or where the perpetrator supposes he may render aid. If they selected the place to afford assistance, whether it was well or ill chosen for that purpose is immaterial. The perpetrator would derive courage and confidence from the knowledge that his associate was in the place appointed.”
With the letter of the law seemingly supporting the defense, it was not an easy case for a jury to decide but in the end they sided with Webster. John Knapp was convicted of murder. Four months later his brother Joseph was convicted as well.
Verdicts: John Francis Knapp - guilty of murder
Joseph Jenkins Knapp, Jr. - guilty of murder
John Francis Knapp and Joseph Jenkins Knapp, Jr were hanged together from the same scaffold.